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PAKISTAN’S SECURITY PARADIGM: HUMAN SECURITY OR ELSEWISE?

Pakistan’s security orientation is built up heavily on the historical and geopolitical perspective and especially on the threat from India. Indian animosity on issues like Kashmir had a profound influence on the security perception, the defense, and the foreign policies of Pakistan. In its quest for security against India, Pakistan made a trade-off, i.e., it chose hard power over human security and neglected development and spending on education, health, and public services.

Whereas, now the concept of Human security broadens the concept of security and incorporates the physical security of the individuals as well as security against various threats. Saying that external security will come on its own if the house (internal security) is in order.

WHICH WAY TO GO:

Thus, the way to secure international security was seen to be through the merging of development and security placing the development of the individual at the center of the security agenda. But everything cannot be considered worthy of equal resource allocation. In a world where the risk of terrorism still presents itself, this would be foolish to assume that states will treat the threat to human security in the same way as they treat the threat posed by environmental degradation or problems. For example, by securitizing issues that previously fell under the premises of development now, when those are considered human security issues will signify mostly the developing states. Also, it has placed human beings at the core of security and the state is no longer privileged over the individual.

Also by securitizing all the issues such as health, environmental, community, food, personal issues needs more attention and resources as well to counter these issues. If the only focus will be on these issues which primarily are the developmental issues then national security can be threatened by other states as the interstate conflicts remain a possibility and that cannot be deprioritized. For example, securitizing such issues as health and the environment has resulted in more policy attention and resources for these issues. Moreover, if we look at life in developed countries, people are still committing crimes, murders, drugs, robberies although the life standard in those countries is very high. Count of such mishap is low as compared to underdeveloped countries but still, they are facing such insecurities. It shows that crimes are not only dependent on economic securities, but it’s also more than that.

Perhaps, the basic education to understand that every person in society has a social responsibility is missing. The government should run programs for basic education and should actively involve its people from all aspects of life. Awareness about the crimes and their punishments should be made available to all. People should be convinced that every crime will be punished, and nobody is superior before the law. This awareness and enforcement of law and order can be a big help to provide the internal security of states.

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